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Can Tough-Talking Former Mexico Border Cop Julian Leyzaola Save Cancun?

Deborah Bonello - InSight Crime
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August 10, 2017
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Julian Leyzaola, former police chief and current security advisor for Cancún (David Maung/SDUT)

There are stars in security and law enforcement just as there are in the ranks of organized crime, and Julián Leyzaola is one of them. Once considered one of Mexico's toughest cops, he was recently brought on as an advisor to help improve the imploding security situation in the tourist mecca of Cancún. But can, and will, he repeat his unsavory methods on a shoreline crowded with foreign visitors, or is his appointment just pubic relations bluster?

A retired military colonel, Leyzaola served as a police chief in both Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez during some of the worst years of violence in Mexico's contemporary drug war. He is widely credited with having reversed the homicide rate, chronic insecurity and crime during his tenure in both border towns. A well-known figure in Mexico, Leyzaola has often made the headlines himself, most memorably when he was attacked by gunmen while sitting in his car in Ciudad Juárez (after his stint as police chief), an aggression that has left him confined to a wheelchair.

His security victories in both Ciudad Juárez and Tijuana came at a high cost. Leyzaola earned a reputation for using brutal, confrontational methods to achieve his goals. On his arrival in Tijuana, he told the press, "If the cartels understand only the language of violence, then we are going to have to speak in their language and annihilate them." ;

Journalist William Finnegan recounted a particularly disturbing episode in a profile on Leyzaola in the New Yorker: "Arriving at the scene of a shoot-out where one of his men had died, [Leyzaola] punched the corpse of a cartel gunman in the face." More cops died under ;Leyzaola's watch than during the five previous years, according to the writer.


 

In a telephone interview with InSight Crime, Mike Vigil, a retired agent from the Drugs Enforcement Administration (DEA) who spent years based in Mexico, compared Leyzaola to Joe Arpaio, the controversial sheriff of Maricopa County, Arizona.

"He violated every principal of human rights ... a lot of people were sent to prison without doing anything," Vigil said, referring to Leyzaola, who declined to be interviewed by phone for this article.

Leyzaola arrived in Ciudad Juárez in March 2011, after which a dramatic drop in homicides took place. Within two years, the daily murder rate fell from a jaw-dropping 10 a day to about one per day. Before that, he was credited with "cleaning up" Tijuana and its corrupt police, mostly by appointing former military officials to high-ranking positions. Under his watch, from 2007 to 2010, murder rates that peaked at over 800 in 2008 steadily dropped to levels that were low compared to other northern border municipalities at the time.

But both of his periods as police chief are littered with accusations of human rights violations, such as the use of torture during interrogations. And a comparison for arrest figures during a couple of years in Juárez shows an important difference: In January 2011, police arrested 1,462 people for suspected misdemeanours, but by July 2012, after a year of Leyzaola's reign, that figure was 13,568.

As in many situations where violence tapers off, it was hard to determine if the drop in violence was a direct response to ;Leyzaola's hard-line methods, or had more to do with the eventual emergence of a dominant criminal player. In his time as police chief in both cities, violence was largely the product of territorial disputes between rival cartels - the Sinaloa Cartel and Arellano Felix organization in the case of Tijuana, and the Sinaloans against their former allies, the Juárez Cartel, in Ciudad Juárez.

But ;Leyzaola's experiences do place him in a strong position to take on the security issues now ravaging the city of Cancún. Violent incidents such as night club shootouts and bodies dumped in exclusive apartment blocks are becoming increasingly common. Some reports suggest that the relatively recent arrival here of the kind of brutal-drug related violence so common in other regions of the country marks a push into the city by the aggressively expanding ;Jalisco Cartel New Generation (Cartel Jalisco Nueva Generación - CJNG) and its fight for dominance with the Sinaloa Cartel. Others put the violence down to clashes between the Zetas and a new, independent cartel.

But whatever is behind the current bloodshed, there are a few reasons why Leyzaola's impact is likely to be minimal.

Read the rest at InSight Crime

InSight Crime is a foundation dedicated to the study of the principal threat to national and citizen security in Latin America and the Caribbean: organized crime. We seek to deepen and inform the debate about organized crime in the Americas by providing the general public with regular reporting, analysis and investigation on the subject and on state efforts to combat it.


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